A portable appliance test, otherwise called PAT or PAT examination or PAT testing, is a cycle by which electrical machines are checked for wellbeing. It is practiced in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia for regular checks on electrical appliances for safety.

The UK introduced the test with high gamble machines and electrical establishments under the Ministry of public building and works in 1972. The names were given to different pieces of the tested electrical hardware as “passed”, ” tested for electrical safety”, and “don’t use later”.

Hence, a regular check is significant for hardware, and presently you can book your arrangement for PAT testing for all areas, including Training, finance, manufacturing, Retail, Hospitals, construction site, theaters, and many more.

Necessity Of PAT Testing

  • The PAT test is essential for security as these tests are critical to maintaining the wellbeing principles of electrical machines in your properties.
  • With an increasing number of fake electrical items in the market today, it is imperative to guarantee that your electrical items are real and safe.
  • A PAT test should be conducted after any new acquisition of electrical items and afterwards in normal spans to check for weakening and maintain wellbeing principles.

Types Of PAT Testing

It is always better for one to take precautions than work on cures. Hence, one should invest in periodic maintenance to reduce damage or fault.

Usually, the tests a device requires are dependent on what kind of device it is. However, below are the types of PAT testing performed to measure an appliance’s safety.

1. Earth resistance test

These tests are carried out to check if the earthing done is fool-proof. Typically, the resistance offered by earthing rods to the appliance is measured, and the resistance we receive in ohms is verified to be less than 1 Ohms (Ω).

2. Earth continuity test

A particular device is used to measure resistance offered by an earthing circuit. This test is performed to verify the system’s safety and compatibility with different installation conditions.

3. Insulation resistance test

The test ensures the resistance in the insulation system that surrounds the live parts of a device.

4. Lead polarity tests

This test is not for the device itself. It is performed to check the wiring of the system. This test is carried out using a simple instrument polarity tester. This ensures that the connection to a neutral and active polar socket is rightly made.

5. Current leakage tests

This test is performed to measure any leakage in insulated areas. It is often an alternative to the Insulation resistance test.

6. Polarity check

This test is carried out using a simple instrument polarity tester.

Types Of Device


These tests are run on several portable devices but are divided into classes I and II. The requirement of a particular test for a device depends on the type of the device.

1. Class I

A device with a very basic insulation system and earthing would be classified under class I. Usually, toasters, refrigerators, and kettles are part of this classification. These kinds mostly require a full PAT test of devices.

2. Class II

These are safer than class I devices; hence will generally not require a full PAT test. These systems have better insulation and very less dependency on earth, making them safer. Computers, lamps, and photocopiers are the ones we can usually see under this classification.

3. Class lll

These are machines that are provided at a low voltage; these are also known as separated extra low voltage (SELV). Voltage must be under 50 V in this class of appliances. These machines are provided with a transformer supply that is likewise set apart as a SELV PSU.

Class 0 is not permitted in the UK and different nations. By treating all machines without Class II or III markings as Class I, Class 0 appliances will flop testing as Class I gadgets.

PAT Test Frequency


Employers and landlords use PAT testing to auto-guarantee that the hardware they are utilizing is protected and forestalls any harm. In any case, it is essential to know the testing recurrence since there is certainly not an unequivocal recurrence. Everything relies on the machines utilized, which decide the frequency

There are a few factors that decide the recurrence of testing. A couple of them are expressed beneath

  1. The apparatus utilized more ought to be tested as often as possible.
  2. In the event that hardware is getting harmed and becoming risky. It is significant for getting a PAT test.
  3. The sort of hardware is also a significant variable as it decides testing recurrence. Handheld apparatuses are more dangerous when contrasted with fixed ones. Hence the testing of class I appliances should be completed more regularly.

PAT testing suggestion

  • In workplaces, shops, and lodgings, the machines under class 1, like fixed and IT hardware, ought to be tested like clockwork. While mobile machines ought to be tried at regular intervals, handhelds ought to be tested like clockwork.
  •  Schools’ class 1 devices should be tested once a year, while class 2 hardware ought to be in every 48 months.
  • Public use machines fixed and IT apparatuses like PC and other class 1 gear should be tested regularly. Moveable and compact appliances in like clockwork
  • Development – All the appliances which are 110V utilized on building destinations ought to be tested at regular intervals.
  • All the equipment, whether versatile or handheld, should be test like clockwork while fixed, IT and moveable hardware should be tested at regular intervals.


Because of serious electrical dangers, individuals have lost their lives, while others are left truly harmed. Large numbers of these electrical flames can be away on the off chance that individuals lead important security rehearses. PAT testing includes playing out a progression of tests that, taken together, are intended to recognize any issues or item deserts that would somehow not be identified. As well as safeguarding staff, normal security checks of electrical hardware will generally build the functional existence of equipment.